令和4年度 総合解析セミナー

日時: 金曜 15:00 - 16:30
場所: ZOOM (参加ご希望の方は  nakamura.satoko[at]isee.nagoya-u.ac.jp まで事前にご連絡ください。

date Speaker title
5/20 Satoko Nakamura Are geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) really a threat for the Japanese power grid?
Abstract : Geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) are one of the main manifestations through which space weather affects human technical facilities, and GICs constitute the final link in the sun-magnetosphere-ionosphere-ground interaction chain.
The most exposed countries are those at high latitudes where the occurrence of intense GICs has seriously damaged part of their power networks in the past. However, it has been revealed that severe space weather can cause intense GICs also at middle and low latitudes.
There have been some confusing questions about the risk against geomagnetic induced current (GIC) as follows;
- How geomagnetic disturbances actually drive GIC in power lines?
- Does the vulnerability of modern power grids increase or decrease?
- Which influence on the system is "really" hazardous?
- What is the key factor determining the magnitude of GIC?
- How to mitigate the impact of GIC?

I review the fundamental knowledge of GIC and present new results simulating the risk of the Japanese power grid against the Carington storm.
5/13 Aki Ieda Oxygen ion-neutral collision for space weather
Abstract : Solar flare and auroral breakup ionize the neutral atmosphere of Earth and planets. Generated ions collide with the neutral atmosphere, leading to heating and expansion of the atmosphere, resulting in braking and loss of low-altitude satellites. The atomic oxygen ion-neutral collision is the key for this space weather sequence in Earth, Venus, and Mars. However, there are many models of cross section for this collision, and the cross sections differ from each other by a factor of two. In addition, the valid temperature range of their fit is limited between 300 and 2000 K. It is not widely recognized that this temperature range is often insufficient for ionospheric studies, in particular during strong storms in Earth or during solar minimum in Venus and Mars. We have made a fit using a theoretical basis function that include the attractive polarization force and the quantum fine-structure effect. The resultant fit is valid between 80 and 9000 K. This temperature range is practically sufficient to study ionospheres of Earth, Venus, and Mars, including extreme events.
5/6 Satoshi Masuda Solar Flare Observations with NoRH and RHESSI
Abstract : We review initial results of a statistical study of solar microwave and hard X-ray flares jointly observed over the past two solar cycles mainly by the Nobeyama Radioheliograph (NoRH), and the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). As has been previously demonstrated, the microwave (17 GHz and 34 GHz) peak flux shows a linear correlation with the nonthermal hard X-ray bremsstrahlung peak emission seen above 50 keV. The correlation holds for the entire rise phase of each individual burst, while the decay phases tend to show more extended emission at microwaves than is generally attributed to particle trapping. While the correlation is highly significant (coefficient of 0.92) and holds over more than four orders of magnitude, individual flares can be above or below the fitted line by an average factor of about 2. By restricting the flare selection to source morphologies with the radio emission from the top of the flare loop, the correlation tightens significantly, with a correlation coefficient increasing to 0.99 and the scatter reduced to a factor of 1.3. These findings corroborate the assumption that gyrosynchrotron microwave and hard X-ray bremsstrahlung emissions are produced by the same flare-accelerated electron population.
4/22 Yoshizumi Miyoshi SRelativistic electron microbursts as a high-energy tail of pulsating aurora and and its effects in the atmosphere
Abstract : Whistler chorus waves cause energetic electron precipitations into the Earth’s atmosphere, and signatures of precipitations are observed as diffuse, pulsating aurora(PsA), and microbursts of energetic electrons. Last year, we discussed our model about the energy spectrum of precipitating electrons and recent Arase observations confirmed the model. And also, we showed our new model that PsA and relativistic electron microbursts (relativistic energy) are the same product of chorus wave‐particle interactions, and we proposed that relativistic electron microbursts are a high-energy tail of the pulsating aurora electrons, which have been confirmed very recently by coordinated observations between low-altitude satellite and ground-based observations. In this presentation, we present our coordinated observations between Arase and EISCAT that is an incoherent scatter radar to measure the upper/middle atmosphere, and we show that MeV electrons precipitate into the middle atmosphere by chorus wavesa associated with PsA embedded in the omega-band. The computer simulation shows that the precipitated MeV electrons cause a catalytic destruction of mesospheric ozone that may have a great impact on the middle atmosphere. We would also like to present our on-going and future projects to understand a link between magnetosphere and middle atmosphere.
4/15 Kanya Kusano 草野完也 Study of electron acceleration/propagation process in a solar flare using Nobeyama Radioheliograph
Abstract : The solar-terrestrial environment is a complex system that consists of nonlinear, non-equilibrium, and multi-scale interacting processes. The Integrated Studies Division aims to improve our understanding of the dynamics of various phenomena in the solar-terrestrial environment through data analyses, numerical simulations, and modelings. Integrated Studies Seminar plays a vital role in discussing different research topics of the solar-terrestrial environment with all members of the division. In the first part of this seminar, I will give a brief introduction to the integrated studies seminar and explain how important is the holistic aspect to understand and predict the dynamics of the solar-terrestrial environment. In the second part, I will talk about our new research project for the solar and heliospheric integrated model. Solar explosions, such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs), occur as the consequence of the destabilization of the coronal magnetic field generated by the dynamo process inside the sun (convection zone). The solar explosion may cause space weather disturbance, and thus it is a potential risk for the infrastructure that supports modern society. However, research on the inside and outside of the Sun has been separated so far, and the physics that interconnects the convection zone, the solar atmosphere, and the interplanetary space has not been well elucidated. Therefore, the ability to predict solar explosions and space environmental variation is still insufficient. To overcome this difficulty, we recently launched a new research project for the integrated model of the solar and heliospheric system. In this project, we challenge to develop the integrated model including from the solar convection zone to interplanetary space. Through this project, we aim at realizing advanced predictions of solar explosions, elucidating the cause of the solar cycle and solar flares, and clarifying the physics that determine the maximum limit of solar explosions. In this seminar, I will review what we have achieved in the last year and what are still remaining as our issues.
太陽地球環境は、非線形、非平衡、およびマルチスケール相互作用プロセスが支配する複雑なシステムです。総合解析研究部では、データ分析や数値シミュレーション、モデリングを通じて、太陽地球環境におけるこうした様々な現象のダイナミクスの理解を深めることを目的としています。総合解析セミナーは、太陽地球環境のさまざまな研究トピックについて研究部のすべてのメンバーが議論する重要な役割を果たす場です。この講演ではまず、総合解析セミナーの役割を簡単に説明し、太陽地球環境のダイナミクスを理解し予測するための統合研究がいかに重要であるかを議論します。 後半では、太陽と太陽圏の統合モデルに関する新しい研究プロジェクトについてお話します。太陽フレアやコロナ質量放出(CME)などの太陽面爆発は、太陽内部(対流層)のダイナモプロセスによって生成された磁場が太陽表面とコロナで不安定化する結果として発生します。太陽面爆発はしばしば大規模な宇宙天気擾乱を引き起こす可能性があり、現代社会を支えるインフラストラクチャーにとっても潜在的なリスクです。しかし、これまで、太陽の内部と外部の研究は分断されており、太陽対流層、太陽大気、惑星間空間を相互に結合する物理過程は十分に理解できていません。そのため、太陽面爆発の発生や宇宙環境の変化を予測する能力はまだ不十分です。この困難を克服するために、私たちは太陽・太陽圏システムの統合モデルに関する新しい研究プロジェクトを立ち上げました。このプロジェクトでは、太陽対流層から惑星間空間までを含むモデルの開発に挑戦します。このプロジェクトを通じて、これまで不可能であった太陽面爆発の早期予測を実現すると共に、太陽と恒星の周期活動とフレアの基本性質を説明し、太陽フレアの最大限界を決定するメカニズムを明らかにすることを目指しています。本セミナーでは昨年度のプロジェクトの成果と残されている課題について説明します。